Islamic Azad University
Central Tehran Branch
Faculty of Foreign Languages – Department of English
“M.A” Thesis
Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment for the Requirements of the Degree of Master of Arts in Translation Studies
Subject
The Degree of Acceptability of the Academy of Persian Language and Literature (APLL) Astronomy Terminology Equivalents among Technical Translators of the Field
Advisor:
Dr. Kourosh Akef
Reader:
Dr. Behdokht Mall-Amiri
By:
Masoumeh Shiri
January 2014
In the Name of God,
The Compassionate, the Merciful
Dedicated to my dears,
Ali Dalvandi and Mohsen Shiri, for endless supports and encouragements
Acknowledgements
I am extremely grateful to the people who helped me in the preparationof this thesis.
First of all, I wish to express my heartfelt thanks toDr. Kourosh Akef,my dear advisor,whose help and support were manifested in more ways than I could say.
My sincere thanks must also go to Dr. Behdokht Mall-Amiri,my dear reader who generously gave her time to offer me valuable comments toward improving my work.
I would also like to gratefully acknowledge Dr. Abdollah Baradaran, my dear referee, who despite his workload supported me with his kind and precise points.
I am also indebted to Dr. Reza Mansouri and Ms Mahnoosh Tehrani who helped me to access the resources of the APLL, and guided me to design the questionnaire of this study.
I wish to express my thankfulness to Dr. Mahdi Daneshyar, Dr. Sepehr Arbabi, Ms. Maryam Ebrahimian, Ms.Mahdieh Ghanat Abadi, and Ms. Mina Shiri who kindly accepted my request for holding interviews with them and also astronomy technical translators who devoted their time to fill out the questionnaire.
I wish to express my special thankfulness to my dearfriendsShirin Shahin and Atefe Banifatemifor their sincere help and valuable suggestions.
Last, but certainly not least, I would like to thank tomy parentsand my dear brother, Mohsen for their love, support, and great patience through my study.
Abstract
Finding Persian Equivalents for technical terms is one of the aims of the Academy of Persian Language and Literature (APLL), and more than 40 scientific committees are now working on this scope in terminology departments of the Academy. The astronomy terminology committee is one of these teams that has started its activity since 2001 and has approved more than 600 of astronomy equivalents for academy fields. In this study, 29 questionnaires including 32terms were given to M.S and PhD degree astronomy technical translators. In order to get the more acceptability of the equivalents, the APLL needs to coin and select the acceptable equivalents coincide with the arrival of new concepts before the entrance of foreign terms.
Table of Contents
1CHAPTER I1
1.1Introduction1
1.2Research Question2
1.3Definition of Key Terms2
1.4Limitations and Delimitations of the Study3
1.5Significance of the Study3
2CHAPTER Π5
2.1Introduction5
2.2Equivalence5
2.2.1Definitions of Equivalence7
2.2.2The Equivalence Controversy8
2.2.3Acceptability of EquivalenceError! Bookmark not defined.
2.3Terminological Activities of the APLL10
2.3.1The objectives of the APLL13
2.4Conclusion14
3CHAPTER ΠI15
3.1Introduction15
3.2Corpora of the Study15
3.3Procedure17
3.4Data Analyses17
4CHAPTER IV18
4.1Introduction18
4.2Data Analyses and Research Findings18
5CHAPTER V27
5.1Introduction27
5.2Conclusions27
5.3Pedagogical Implications28
5.4Suggestions for further Research29
6Reference31
List of Tables
PageTable 4.1.The English and Persian polysemous of the research terminology56Table 4.2. The potential productivity of the APLL equivalents59Table 4.3.The more acceptable APLLES.61Table 4.4.The equivalents with the five 62Table 4.5.Frequency and percentage of the total agreement and disagreement of the APLLE66Table 4.6.The frequency and percentage of the agreement and disagreement of the APLLEs 67Table 4.7. Mean of high acceptable equivalents among astronomy technical translators68Table 4.8. Mean of low acceptable equivalents among astronomy technical translators
69
List of Figures
Figure ‎41 The frequency of the agreement and disagreement of the APLLEs among participants25
Figure ‎42: The total mean of the high acceptable APLLEs among the participants26
Figure ‎43:The total mean of the low acceptable APLLES among the participants26

Abbreviations
APLLAcademy of Persian language and LiteratureAPLLEAcademy of Persian Language and Literature Equivalent

1 CHAPTER I
Background and Purpose
1.1 Introduction
Technical translation is a specialized translation involving the translation of texts related to the subject matter areas and deal with the scientific information (Zanon, 2011). Technical translators should understand the source text and know the specific terms of the source and target languages. According to Cabre (1999) a good technical translator must choose the topics they want to work on and attain minimal competence in some specific field in order to be certain to respect the content and form of the two languages they work in.
The APLL has suggested equivalents for some general and technical foreign terms in nine collections including “First Collection” to “Ninth Collection” since 1997. These equivalents were approved by the council of the APLL and finally confirmed by the President to communicate with governmental organizations and institutions. In accordance with the law on the prohibition of the use of foreign terms and expressions, such organizations are duty-bound to use exclusively these equivalents in their publications and correspondence.
1.2 Research Question
– To what extent are the APLL approved astronomy equivalents are accepted?
1.3 Definition of Key Terms
In order to avoid any misconception, the key words used in this study are defined here. It is through these definitions that the researcher can approach the problem.
1.3.1. Equivalent: Hartmann and Gregory (1998) state that “the equivalent is a word or phrase in one language which corresponds in meaning to a word or phrase in another language” (p. 5).
1.3.3. Astronomy: The American Heritage Science Dictionary (n.d.) states Astronomy is the scientific study of the universe and the objects in it, including stars, planets, nebulae, and galaxies. Astronomy deals with the position, size, motion, composition, energy, and evolution of celestial objects.
1.3.4. APLL (Academy of Persian Language and Literature): Hazbavi (2012) states “Iran’s Academy of Persian Language and Literature is a scientific governmental institute, responsible for standardization of Persian Language in Iran” (p.1053). The duties of the APLL are included: “1) to maintain Persian as one of the national identity elements and the second language of the Islamic world; 2) to develop a language for expressing scientific and literary concepts; 3) to spread this language and its literature; 4) to broaden its usage scope both at home and abroad”(Zarnikhi, n.d., p.2).

1.4 Limitations and Delimitations of the Study
There were some delimitations for this study:
First, among considerable numbers of astronomy equivalents approved by the APLL, the present study focused only on 32 equivalents approved in the “First Volume” of the astronomy APLL .
Second, since there are more than 40 different fields of study in the APLL, the researcher chose Astronomy field due to her area of interest. Moreover, Astronomy field can be applied to other fields such as Religious, Mathematic, Physics, Meteorology, Chemistry and etc (Gholami, 2009).
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study investigated the acceptability of the APLLEs in the field of astronomy based on criteria and the astronomy technical translators’ points of view; the following statements could be resulted:
The quality of the APLLEs could be investigated by the astronomy technical translators and the criteria which introduce linguistic aspects of the term creation such as productivity, phonological structures, and grammatical categories of the equivalents. It could be resulted how much the APLLEs were acceptable according to the criteria and the translators’ points of view. The results of this study showed the features of more acceptable and standard equivalents based criteria. Thus, these features could be used as guidelines for teaching terminologies and translation courses. Also, the result of this study would help the APLL scholars and researchers to receive any feedback on their works in the astronomy terminology and it is lead the academics to revise some of the APLLEs. Also, the result of this research would help astronomy translators to select more acceptable terms in their translations instead of using foreign or loan terms. Finally, through this study the pros and cons of the APLLEs could be clarified.
2 CHAPTER Π
Review of the Literature
2.1 Introduction
Zanon (2011) states “translation not only reproduces the formal structures of the source language into the target language, but also transfers the style and content of the text” (p. 12).
The standardization of terminology, the different views on the producing the technical terms, and definitions of the equivalents by different theorists in this field are discussed. In the last part of this chapter, a brief review of the APLL terminology activities and the objectives of the APLL are presented.
2.2 Equivalence
Baker (2001) claims that equivalence is a central concept in translation theory, but it is also a controversial one. She states approaches to the question of equivalence differ radically: “some theorists define translation in terms of equivalence relations (Toury 1980a ; Koller1995) while others reject the theoretical notion of equivalence, claiming it is either irrelevant (Snell- Hornby, 1988) or damaging (Gentzler, 1993) to translation studies” (Baker, 2001, p. 77). Yet other theorists steer a middle course: Baker uses the notion of equivalence “for the sake of convenience -because most translators are used to it rather than because it has any theoretical status”(2001, pp. 5-6). Thus, the equivalence is variously regarded as a necessary condition for translation, an obstacle to progress in translation studies, or a useful category for describing translations (Baker, 2001).
According to the proponents of equivalence- based theories of translation, equivalence is defined as the relationship between a source text and a target text that allows the target text to be considered as a translation of the source text in the first place (Baker, 2001). Equivalence relationships are also said to hold between parts of source texts and parts of target texts. However, the above definition of equivalence according to Baker (2001) is not unproblematic. Pym (1992), for one, has pointed to its circularity “equivalence is supposed to define translation, and translation, in turn, defines equivalence. Unfortunately, few attempts have been made to define equivalence in translation in a way that avoids this circularity” (p. 37). Theorists who mention that the translation is predicated upon some kind of equivalence have, for the most part, concentrated on developing typologies of equivalence, focusing on the rank (word, sentence or text level) at which equivalence is said to obtain, or on the type of meaning (denotative, connotative, pragmatic, etc.) that is said to be held constant in translation (Baker, 2001).
2.2.1 Definitions of Equivalence
Baker states (2001) Viany and Darbelnet view equivalence – oriented translation as a procedure which replicates the same situation as in the original, whilst using completely different wording. Nida (1964) argues that there are two different types of equivalence, namely formal equivalence – which in the second edition by Nida and Taber (1985) is referred to as formal correspondence – any dynamic equivalence. Formal correspondence focuses attention on the message itself, in both form and content, unlike dynamic equivalence which he based upon the principle of theequivalence effect (Leonardi, 2000). Leonardi (2000) believes that Catford’s approach to translation equivalence is clearly different from that adopted by Nida since Catford had a preference for a more linguistically- based approach to translation and this approach is based on the linguistic work of Firth and Halliday. Catford’s main contribution in the field of translation theory is the introduction of the concepts of types and shifts of translation. House (1977) is in favour of semantic and pragmatic equivalence and argues that source text and target text should match one another in function. In fact, according to her theory, every text is in itself is placed within a particular situation which has to be correctly identified and take into account by the translator. She acknowledges that “a translation text should not only match its source text in function, but employ equivalents situational-dimensional means to achieve that function” (House, 1977, p. 49). An extremely interesting discussion of the notion of equivalence can be found in Baker (1992) who seems to offer a more detailed list of conditions, upon which the concept of equivalence can be defined. She explores the notion of equivalence at different levels, in relation to the translation process, including all different aspects of translation and hence putting together the linguistic and the communicative approach. She distinguishes between:
– Equivalence that can appear at word level and above word level, when translating from one language into another.
– Grammatical equivalence, when referring to the diversity of grammatical categories across languages.
– Textual equivalence, when referring to the equivalence between a source text and target language text in terms of information and cohesion.
– Pragmatic equivalence, when referring to implicatures and strategies of avoidance during the translation process.
2.2.2 The Equivalence Controversy
“Equivalence is one of the most traditional and critical concepts in translation theory, being considered by some constitutive for translation.” (Koller as cited in Siahrizi, 2006, p.24) and the “nucleus of all translation theory” (Albrecht as cited in Siahrizi, 2006, p.24) and by others provoking contradicting opinions and carrying in its wake a plethora of definitions (Wills, as cited in Siahrizi, 2006, p.24). Ager (as cited in Siahrizi, 2006) differentiates between communicative equivalence and functional equivalence, already including theme-rheme patterns as an equivalence parameter. Siahrizi (2006) notes that the most detailed concept of equivalence is presented by Koller, specifying five equivalence frameworks: denotative, connotative, text normative, pragmatic and formal equivalence.
According to Siahrizi(2006) in the eighties and nineties, “the equivalence concept was severely criticized for being too linguistically oriented (Snell-Hornby, 1986, 13 and others, most recently, Gallagher, 1998) and even totally discarded as a valid concept for translation theory on the grounds that the concept suggested symmetry between languages that did not exist” (p. 24) .
Hartmann & Gregory (1998) state:
Acceptability aspect of usage by which members of a given speech community characterize a word or phrase as normal and authentic. The suitability of an expression to a particular situational context is sometimes referred to as appropriateness, while suitability in a particular verbal context is called grammaticality” also they define acceptability rating for a term is the evaluation of a term within a technical field, on a scale from ‘deprecated’ to ‘admitted’ to ‘preferred’ to ‘standardized’. (p. 2)
2.3 Terminological Activities of the APLL
According to Zarnikhi(n.d.) Ghanatabadi (Personal communication, October 29, 2013) the APLL is a scientific governmental institute, responsible for standardization of the Persian Language. The APLL introduced its first collection of Persian equivalents in more than 40 different fields in 1997 such as Astronomy field which astronomy terminology group of the APLL was established in 2001 in APLL. The first collection of the APLL equivalents was published in 2003. Each collection contains between 500 and 700 words.
The APLL contains the following departments: Terminology, Comparative Literature, Grammar, Lexicography, Contemporary Literature, Iranian Languages, Encyclopedia of Persian Language and Literature, Encyclopedia of Literary Researchers, Encyclopedia of Persian Language and Literature. The department fulfills its function through ensuring the cooperation among terminology groups, the coordination council, the technical committee and the terminology council.
Terminology groupsinclude academy scholars and some experts from each subject field. The researchers mostly hold MA or PhD in linguistics and, some of them hold BA in translation and the department also had welcomed some interested people graduated from other subject fields. Groups normally arrange their meetings weekly and have to perform three main duties: collecting data, filling in terminology records and providing the coordination council with a list of polysemous and synonymous terms accompanied by their equivalents. The data gathering direction is from English into Persian and the experts should prepare a list of English terms to find or create Persian equivalents for them. The next step a terminology group has to take is to fill in terminology records. The initial information is a term, usually in English and then its equivalents in some other languages such as French, Arabic. The etymology information sometimes is necessary for selecting or coining an equivalent. Terms are investigated in respect with four aspects: synonyms, derivations, compound and related terms. By collecting compound forms of a term, terminologists enjoy an advantage of viewing the term in its various combinations to overcome the pitfalls associated with the morphological processes which may await them in finding or creating equivalents for the terms. Other information which needs to fill includes: a proposed equivalent can be from the existing equivalents (selection), from the existing words but with changing their meanings and functions (re-semanticization) or a completely new one (neologization). A morphological pattern shows what kind of morphological process is exploited. Definitions are not precise and suitable for a specialized dictionary, but only for explaining and clarifying the approved equivalents. Definitions are simplified to be comprehensible for students of BA level. For registering the existing Persian terms, researchers access a software called “Ganjvazhe” designed and developed by the APLL which containing 3000 resources, such as bilingual dictionaries, Persian – Persian dictionaries and also glossaries, and it includes 6400000 records. The next information item includes all of the equivalents suggested by the members at the meetings. Providing the coordination council with a list of polysemous and synonym terms is one of the duties of the researchers of the terminology group. The terminology groups by looking up in “McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Sciences”, and “Technology and the Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Technology”, prepare a list of polysemous terms, to determine the other disciplines which those terms cover and to suggest their equivalents. The duty of the council is to homogenous the equivalents among those disciplines. Terminology group and the council need to deal with synonyms Persian terms to arrive at an agreement.
Technical committees are supervising all of the terminology activities at the Academy. They revise and review the information items registered on terminology records, and they take account of the decisions reached by the coordinating council.
Terminology council is the major reference for making the final decision for all the equivalents selected or created by the terminology groups. This is formed by some of the Academia members and experts in literature, linguistics, scientific and technological fields, selected by the Academy members. Some or all of the members of a terminology group and researchersresponsible for defining the information items on the terminology records and the representative from the Academy in coordination council attend the meetings. After discussing the information items on a terminology record, a vote is held by the council members. If they vote in favor of a proposed equivalent, it is approved by the council. The approved equivalents should be sent to the President, the head of the APLL,to endorse them, and then these equivalentsshould be used in official writings, media and textbooks (See Appendix B, the terminological activity of the APLL in Astronomy field).
2.3.1 The objectives of the APLL
According to Hazbavi (2012) the main objectives of the APLL include:
– To establish terminology management unites and organizing similar units in other universities as well as scientific and cultural organizations and coordinate their activities through exchange of experiences.
– To monitor terminologies from other languages translated into Persian in order to determine the criteria for the preservation and strengthening Persian vigor in dealing with new concepts and terminology.
– To plan and manage new principles of choosing Persian equivalents from non-Persian terminologies.
– To organize the imported foreign words in Persian and their equivalents
– To help standardize concepts and terminologies of different subject fields of science and domain activities in Persian language.
As mentioned above, one of the main objectives of the APLL is standardizing Persian terminologies through creating and approving official equivalents for the non-Persian general and technical terminologies.
2.4 Conclusion
This chapter presents a review of related literature of terminology and technical terms and equivalents. It also provides a brief explanation of standardization in terminology and some theorists’ points of view on the creation or selection of the technical terms. The final part also is a brief explanation of the activities of the APLL. The next chapter is the methodology for this research and defines in detail, the process and procedure applied by the researcher.
3 CHAPTER ΠI
Methodology
3.1 Introduction
This chapter defines and justifies any single procedural step that was taken throughout the different stages of the present study. The purpose of this study was to provide the answer to the following questions upon which the whole study was based on:
To achieve the answer of the above questions, there was a need to design a questionnaire.
The APLLEs were assessed based on a theoretical framework for acceptability of the term introduced by . Required instrumentations and the way of collecting and analyzing data are also discussed in the next part. Then, the procedure of the research is explained step by step and finally the way of the data analysis is described.
3.2 Corpora of the Study
The “First Volume” of astronomy terms approved by the APLL was selected for this study (Appendix D). One equivalent of each foreign term in the First Volume extracted from the APLL worksheets; also other equivalents of the APLL terms are extracted from astronomy bilingual dictionaries which are listed below
A)
1- ارشقی، عادل (1372). فرهنگ کیهان شناسی. نشر نی.
2- امینی، سید محمد (1370). واژگان فیزیک. تهران: مرکز نشر دانشگاهی.
3- سرمدی، مهرداد (1371). فرهنگ اخترشناسی. انتشارات کمانگیر.
– طباطبایی،محمد (1370). واژه نامه نجوم و احکام نجوم. انتشارات فرهنگان.4
5- مصفی، ابوالفضل (1357). فرهنگ اصطلاحات نجومی. انتشارات دانشگاه تبریز.
B) To analyze the rate of the acceptability of the APLLEs, the researcher used the following lists.
1-http://www.vajehyab.com/((فرهنگ لغت نامه دهخدا
2- عمید ، حسن.(2008). فرهنگ عمید. تهران: امیرکبیر.
3-http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/words/how-words-are-built
4- http://www.oxforddictionaries.com
C) Other corpora which were used for definitions of each equivalent were extracted from:
1. Abell, G. (1987). Exploration of the Universe. Saunders College Publishing.
2. Milton, J. (1991(. A concise Dictionary of Astronomy. Oxford.
3. Ridpath,I (1997).Oxford Dictionary of Astronomy. Oxford.
3.3 Procedure
In this research, to measure the extent of acceptability of the astronomy APLLEs, the researcher evaluated the astronomy APLLEs based on two separated evaluations; in the first evaluation, the researcher gauged the degree of acceptability of the astronomy APLLEs based on the astronomy technical translators’ ideas. In the second evaluation, each of the APLLE was evaluated linguistically by two astronomy professors and a linguist.

3.4 Data Analyses
To analysis of data, in the first part the data obtained from the questionnaire was gathered and tabulated. Then the frequency, percentage, and the mean of acceptability of the APLLEs were calculated and tabulated.
In the second parts, the APLLEs were investigated linguistically according to the criteria. Grammatical structures, synonyms, morphological patterns, productivity of the equivalents were investigated through monolingual dictionaries (See section 3.2 part B). After that, Precise, potential productivity, and phonological features were investigated with the help of two astronomy professors and a linguist. The given answers to the questionnaires were calculated and categorized in the separate tables and figures to answer the research questions.
4 CHAPTER IV
Results and Discussions
4.1 Introduction
This chapter presents the results obtained from the analysis of the corpus applying the procedures already explained in the previous chapter. The researcher needed to tabulate the results in order to be able to analyze the data. The following sections provide relevant results tabulated under each case. As it was mentioned in the previous chapter, the researcher investigated the terminology presented in the “First Volume” of astronomy collection of the APLL from both linguistic and practical points of view.
4.2 Data Analyses and Research Findings
The questionnaires of this research distributed among M.A, PhD astrophysics professors, who were technical translators in the field of Astronomy. They were asked to choose their more acceptable equivalents to measure the degree of acceptability of the APLLEs. Also, for further study, the researcher investigated the English terms and the APLLEs of the questionnaire linguistically to find the main reasons of more acceptability and / or less acceptability of the APLLEs among the astronomy technical translators.
As shown in Tables 4.5 and 4.6 below, a total number of 32 foreign terms (regarding the degree of acceptability in the Persian language) were selected from among astronomy APLLEs to be tested by 29 technical translators of the discipline. Out of the total number of frequencies (928) of technical translators agreement on the APLLE, 516 (58.3%) belongs to the participants who used in their translations; and the remaining 368 (41.7 %) belongs to the APLLEs not selected by the participants. As shown in Table 4.6, the number of acceptable of the each APLLEs selected by the participants was totally more than the number of acceptable equivalents which were extracted from dictionaries. It was observed, there was an overall tendency toward application of the APLL astronomy equivalents among the astronomy technical translators. The fact is that the most technical translators accepted the APLL astronomy equivalents and tended to use them in their translations more than foreign terms or equivalents presented in astronomy dictionaries. On the other hand, as the results of the survey indicate, the APLL astronomy equivalents were moderately successfully used in public and in the media and foreign terms were replaced with these equivalents. Within the framework of the present study and based on the results obtained from its data, it can be resulted exploration and standardization of suitable linguistic equivalents of astronomy foreign terms is universal and inherent feature of the translating process (Siahrizi, 2006).
Table ‎41:The English and Persian polysemous of the research terminologies
مصوببیگانهحوزهتعریفجام Crater, Cupنجومصورتی فلکی در نیمکرۀ جنوبی آسمان بین دو صورت شجاع و سنبلهدهانۀآتشفشانcrater زمین‌شناسیساختاری حوض‌مانند و لبه‌دار که معمولاً در قلۀ مخروط آتشفشانی پدید می‌آید.دهانۀ برخوردیmeteoritic crater, crater نجومعارضه‏ای دایره‏شکل بر سطح ماه و دیگر اجسام صُلب منظومۀ شمسی که سطحی فرورفته و لبه‏ای برآمده دارد و ناشی از برخورد سنگ‌های سرگردان آسمانی است دهانۀ )ماه(lunar crater, crater نجومعارضه‏ای معمولاً دایره‏شکل بر سطح ماه که سطحی فرورفته و لبه‏ای برآمده دارد . قیف انفجارcrater علوم نظامیفرورفتگی یا گودالی که براثر انفجار در سطح زمین ایجاد می‌شود و بسته به بزرگی و عمق انفجار، شکل بشقابی یا مخروطی داردسایهumbraنجوم 1. ناحیه‏ای از زمین یا ماه که در هنگام گرفت در تاریکی کامل است 2. ناحیۀ تیره‏تر و مرکزی هر لکۀ خورشیدیسایه shadow, umbraفیزیک- اپتیکناحیۀ تاریک ناشی از واقع شدن جسمی ناشفاف بین چشمۀ نور و صفحۀ تصویرسایه ghostرایانه و فنّاوری اطلاعاتتصویر ناخواستۀ به‏جامانده از متن تایپ‏شده بر روی نمایشگرسایه shade شیمی،مهندسی بسپار ـ علوم و فنّاورى رنگ1. رنگ حاصل از اختلاط یک رنگ‌دانه یا رَزانۀ سیاه یا هر فام تیره با رنگ‌دانه یا رَزانۀ دیگر 2. عمق رنگ 3. یک فام مشخص یا گونه‌ای که تفاوتی اندک با آن دارد.فام سایه.سایه shadow, umbraفیزیک- اپتیکناحیۀ تاریک ناشی از واقع شدن جسمی ناشفاف بین چشمۀ نور و صفحۀ تصویرپوسته casing علوم و فنّاوری غذاماده‌ای طبیعی یا مصنوعی که به‌عنوان لفاف فراوردۀ گوشتی به کار می‌رود و علاوه بر نگهداری، به آن شکل مشخصی می‌دهدپوسته cortexزیست‏شناسیلایۀ خارجی هر ساختار یا اندامی که از بخش‌های درونی متمایز باشد . قشرپوسته crustژئوفیزیکبخش بیرونی کرۀ زمینپوسته shellمهندسی عمرانورق خمیدهزبانه apophysis, tongueزمین‌شناسیشاخۀ فرعی یک تودۀ نفوذی بزرگ‌ترزبانه prominenceنجوم فوران‌های شعله‏مانند گاز در فام‏سپهر یا تاج خورشید که در امتداد خطوط میدان مغناطیسی قرار دارند و چگالی بیشتر و دمای کمتری در مقایسه با محیط اطراف خود دارندزبانه reedموسیقیتیغه‏ای باریک و انعطاف‏پذیر در برخی از هواصداها که با جریان هوا به ارتعاش درمی‏آید و موجب تولید صدا می‏شوداعتدال پاییزیautumnal equinoxنجوم 1. یکی از دو نقطۀ تلاقی استوای آسمان با دایره‏البروج که وقتی خورشید در مسیر ظاهری سالانه‏اش به آن می‏رسد، آغاز پاییز نیمکرۀ شمالی زمین است .اعتدال پاییزیautumnal equinoxنجوم زمانی که خورشید به این نقطه در آسمان برسد.
Table ‎42:The potential productivity of the APLLEs
NoTermDerivation and compoundAPLLEDerivation and compound1bolideآتش گوی-2CoronaCoronal-Corona Muss Ejectionتاجتاجی3Galaxygalactic core – galacticکهکشانکهکشانی4Solar systemمنظومه شمسی- 5Ecliptic limitحدگرفت+6MeteoroidMeteoroidalشهاب‌واره7PhotospherePhotosphericنورسپهرنورسپهری8Baily’s beadsتسبیح دانه‌های بیلی-9UmbraUmbral سایهنیم سایه10Mean solar dayروز خورشیدی متوسط-11ChoromosphereChromospheric- chromospheric flaresفام سپهرشراره های فام سپهری12Spectroheliogramخورطیف نگاشت13ProminenceQuiescent prominenceزبانه14CraterVolcanic craterدهانه15Arctic circleمدارشمالگان-16Auroraauroral – Aurora austrialisشفق قطبیشفقی17Mean solar timeزمان خورشیدی متوسط-18Autumnal equinoxاعتدال پاییزی -19Solar yearسال شمسی-20AzimuthAltazimuth mountingسمت21IonosphereIonospheric – ionospheric waveیون سپهرموج یون سپهری22universal timeCoordinated universal time ساعت هماهنگ جهانیساعت جهانی23Crescent moonWaxing crescent moonهلال ماه24CrustCrustalپوستهپوستی25EclipticEcliptic limitدایرة‌البروج-26Draconic monthماه‌ گرهی-27Celestial navigationناوبری اختری-28MeteoriteMeteoriticsشهاب سنگشهاب سنگ شناسی29CircumpolarCircumpolar starدور قطبیستاره دور قطبی30CoronagraphChronographicتاج نگار31Coordinated universal timeساعت هماهنگ جهانی-32MeteorMeteorid- Meteorite meteor crater -Meteor showerشهابشهاب‌واره- سنگ شهابی
In this section, the total results from part A was tabulated in Table 4.3 and 4.4.
Table‎4-3: The more acceptable APLLES according to the criteria
Table‎43
rategrammaticalphonologicalperciseNewmorphological patternNot synonyms or homonymProductivityconciseEquivalentTerm7+++++++تاجCorona7+++++++کهکشانGalaxy6+++++-+منظومه شمسیSolar system7+++++++شهاب‌واره‌meteoroid6+-+++++حدگرفتEcliptic limit6+++-+++نورسپهرPhotosphere6+++++-+روز خورشیدی متوسطMean solar day6+++-+++فام سپهرChoromosphere6++++-++زبانهProminence6++++-++دهانهCrater6+++++-+زمان خورشیدی متوسطMean solar time6++-++-+اعتدال پاییزیAutumnal equinox6+++++-+سال شمسیSolar year6+++++-+ماه‌ گرهیDraconic month6+++++-+ناوبری اختریCelestial navigation7+++++++سمتAzimuth6+++-+++یون سپهرIonosphere7+++++++ساعت جهانیuniversal time7+++++++هلال ماهCrescent moon6++++-++پوستهCrust6++++++-شهاب سنگMeteorite7+++++++دور قطبیCircumpolar7+++++++تاج نگارCoronagraph6+++++-+ساعت هماهنگ جهانیCoordinated universal time7+++++++شهابmeteor
Table‎44:The equivalents with the five or lower able‎44
rategrammaticalphonologicalpreciseNew morphological patternNot synonyms or homonymproductivityConciseEquivalentTerm3+-+-+–آتش گویbolide4+-+++–تسبیح دانه‌های بیلیBaily’s beads4+-+-++-خورطیف نگاشتSpectroheliogram5+-+++-+مدارشمالگانArctic circle5+-++++-شفق قطبیAurora5++-+-++سایهUmbra5+++++–دایرة‌البروجeclipticAccording to the above investigation, the researcher concluded that the extent of linguistic acceptability of the APLLEs was high and the APLL was nearly successful in selection and coinage of the equivalents linguistically.
As the results tabulated in the Tables 4.6 and 4.5 indicate the most participants voted for the APLLEs (the 58.3 percent agree with the APLLEs).
Table ‎43:The frequency and percentage of the agreement and disagreement of the APLLEs among the participants
DescriptionValid percentAgree with APLLE58.3Disagree with APLLE41.7TotalMissingTotal100
Figure ‎41 The frequency of the agreement and disagreement of the APLLEs among participants
From the above table, it is resulted that 58.3 percent of the APLL equivalents are more acceptable and 41.7 percent are less acceptable among the technical translators and the extent of acceptability of the APLLEs are moderately high
Table‎47: The mean of the high acceptable APLLEs among the participants
T
Figure ‎42:The total mean of thehigh acceptable APLLEs among the participants
able‎47
Figure ‎43:The total mean of the low acceptable APLLES among the participants
5 CHAPTER V
Conclusions, Implications, and Suggestions
5.1 Introduction
This chapter consists of four parts: conclusions, summary of the findings, pedagogical implications, and suggestions for further research. The first part gives specific conclusions on the acceptability of the astronomy APLLEs. These conclusions are based on the interpretation and analyses mentioned in chapter four. The second and third parts deal with presenting the summary of findings and pedagogical implications based on the results provided in chapter four. The last part concerns suggestions for further research.
5.2 Conclusions
In this study, the researcher tried to investigatethe degree of acceptability of the astronomy APLLEs among technical translators of the discipline, also, the rate of acceptability of the equivalents was investigated linguistically according to the criteria. In this respect, the study focused on 32 Persian equivalents selected from 93equivalents approved in the “First Volume” of the APLL in the Astronomy field. To this end, especial attention was paid to the astronomy technical translators’ points of view on whether the equivalents selected and approved by the APLL were currently applied in the technical translation.
In order to obtain the feedback of the research, a questionnaire (Appendix C) was developed. The questionnaire consists of 32 multiple- choice questions aimed at obtaining quantitative feedback; moreover, the rate of the linguistic acceptability of each APLLE was assessed according to the criteria .
Within the framework of the present study and based on the results obtained from its data, it can be concluded that there is an overall tendency toward the application of the astronomy APLLEs among technical translators of the field. The results reflected that the APLL astronomy equivalents were approximately successful in selection of astronomy equivalents, while it didn’t succeed in the creation of astronomy terms. Acceptable equivalents lead the translators to express information in the limited space and in a clear, simple, and concise way in order to allow readers to understand the information quickly.Furthermore, most technical translators of the field tend to use the APLLEs in their translations more than foreign terms.
5.3 Pedagogical Implications
Following to the description in the third chapter, it can be stated that since the equivalents were approved eleven years ago, within which they have been introduced to and distributed among astronomy circles, duration of eleven years was considered long enough for the goal of evaluating the impacts and degree of applications by technical translators of the discipline.
As a matter of fact, the question regarded to the extent of acceptability and application of the APLLEs among technical translators, basically led the research to test the extent of application frequency and /or degree of usage of astronomy APLLEs in the Persian language.
However, according to the results and statistics of the survey, it is suggested that the APLL approve more frequent equivalents as the first step, and meanwhile the cited equivalents are to be widely applied in the media and scientific resources to be more publicity attended.
Regarding the great progress of science, every year thousands of new concepts originate in connection with new discoveries and inventions. Creating and coining Persian equivalents and terms for the new concepts immediately after their entrance, prevent the entrance of the foreign terms to the Persian language. This is the best time for creating or selecting the equivalents. This effort is very effective in finding high acceptable equivalents.
5.4 Suggestions for further Research
Following this research, more investigation seems to be needed, because not so many studies or at least thesis has been done in this field. Among these gaps, the researcher wishes to suggest the following:
1- In this study the degree of acceptability of the astronomy APLLEs by technical translators of the field was examined. Testing this phenomenon in other specific domains is highly suggested.
2- The process of word formation for the APLLEs can be investigated.
3- The translation strategies for the APLLEs can be investigated.
4- Phonology andmeaning of the APLLEs can be investigated separately in details.
6 Reference
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Appendix A.
اصول و ضوابط واژه‌گزینی فرهنگستان زبان و ادب فارسی در سال 1390
مراد از ضوابط واژه‌گزینی باید و نبایدها و اولویت‌هایی است که شایسته است درامر واژه‌گزینی رعایت شود.
1- در ساختن اصطلاح باید قواعد دستور زبان فارسی رعایت شود.
2- در واژه‌گزینی شایسته است اصطلاحی برگزیده شود که بتوان آن را، بنا به ضرورت، در فرایندهای واژه‌سازی بعدی، یعنی انواع اشتقاق و ترکیب به کار برد.
3- در واژه‌گزینی باید قواعد آوایی زبان فارسی رعایت شود. همچنین باید تلفظی از وام واژه‌ها اختیار شود که با قواعد واج آرایی و ساختار هجایی زبان فارسی مطابقت داشته باشد.
4- در املای واژه‌ها باید از دستور خط فرهنگستان پیروی شود. در صورت نیاز می‌توان از برخی علاپم سجاوندی که هنوز در خط فارسی قبول عام نیافته‌اند نیز استفاده کرد.
5- فرهنگستان می‌تواند بنا به ضرورت از فرایندهای واژه‌سازی کم سابقه یا بی‌سابقه در زبان فارسی استفاده کند.
6- هر واژه‌ای را که فارسی محسوب می‌شود صرف‌نظر از تبار آن، می‌توان در فرایندهای واژه ‌ سازی کاربرد و با پیشوندها و پسوندها و واژه‌های اصیل فارسی ترکیب کرد و با آن واژه یا واژه‌های جدید ساخت.
7- در مورد اشتراک لفظی و معنایی در واژه‌های بیگانه و معادل های فارسی آن‌ها از ضوابط زیر پیروی می‌شود:
1-7 – در مقابل یک لفظ بیگانه که دارای یک مفهوم و مشخص است شایسته است که در تمامی حوزه‌ها یک معادل فارسی اختیار شود، مگر اینکه در حوزه‌های مختلف از دیرباز معادل‌های متفاوتی در مقابل آن لفظ بیگانه کاملاْ تداوم یافته شد
2-7 – در مقابل یک لفظ بیگانه در یک حوزه مشخص فقط باید یک معادل فارسی اختیار شود، مگر اینکه آن لفظ در همان حوزه دارای چند مفهوم متفاوت باشد.
3-7- هر گاه یک اصطلاح بیگانه دارای چند مفهوم باشد به منظور بیان دقیق، مقصود، برای هر یک از مفاهیم می‌توان یک معادل فارسی اختیار کرد.
4-7- در صورت وجود چند لفظ بیگانه برای یک مفهوم واحد، بهتر است در زبان فارسی در مقابل آن فقط یک معادل اختیار شود، اما، بنا به ضرورت، از جمله سابقه و رواج می‌توان برای هر یک از الفاظ بیگانه یا برخی از آنها نیز معادلی برگزید
5-7- استفاده از یک معادل فارسی برای چند اصطلاح بیگانه در حوزه‌های مختلف مجاز است
Appendix B.
معرفي و پيشينهگروه واژه‌گزيني نجوم
زمان تشكيل گروه در فرهنگستان: دي‌1380تعداد جلسات برگزارشده: 36 جلسه
آخرین جلسۀ برگزارشده: اردیبهشت 1388تعداد واژه‌هاي مصوب در گروه: 388 واژه
اعضاي گروه: آقايان دكتر حسين معصومي همداني، دكتر منصور وصالي، دكتر محمدرضا خواجه‌پور، بابك امين‌تفرشي و مهرداد سرمدی
نمايندگان فرهنگستان: آقاي دكتر محمدرضا رضوي(پژوهشگر مسئول) و آقای محمدرضا حسيني(پژوهشگر همکار)
کارگروه واژه‌گزینی برون‌پذیر نجوم رصدی
زمان تشكيل کارگروه: تیر1387تعداد جلسات برگزارشده: 60 جلسه
آخرین جلسۀ برگزارشده: تیر 1390تعداد واژه‌هاي مصوب در گروه: 216واژه
اعضاي گروه: آقايان دكتر رضا منصوری، دكتر مهدی خاکیان قمی، دكتر محمدتقی میرترابی، محمدرضا بهاریو دکتر ابوذر نجفی
نمايندگان فرهنگستان: آقاي دكتر محمدرضا رضوي(پژوهشگر مسئول) و خانم بشارت فتحی(پژوهشگر همکار)
کارگروه واژه‌گزینی برون‌پذیر نجوم
زمان تشكيل كارگروه: آبان 1390تعداد جلسات در ماه: 3-4 جلسه
مدت هر جلسه و تعداد جلسات برگزارشده تاكنون: 20 جلسۀ 2:30-3ساعته
تعداد واژه‌هاي بررسي‌شده در کارگروه تاكنون: 200 واژه
اعضاي كارگروه: آقايان دكتر رضا منصوری، دكتر مهدی خاکیان قمی، دكتر محمدتقی میرترابی، محمدرضا بهاریو دکتر حمیدرضا گیاهی یزدی
نمايندگان فرهنگستان:خانم مهديه قنات‌آبادي(پژوهشگر مسئول) و خانم شیما شریفی(پژوهشگر همكار(
اعضاي هيئت فني:خانم‌ها نسرين پرويزي و دكتر شهين نعمت‌زاده و آقايان دكتر علاءالدين طباطبايي و دكتر سيدمهدي سمائي
فهرست منابع كارگروه برون‌پذير نجوم
1 Oxford Dictionary of Astronomy, edited by: Ian Ridpath, Oxford University Press, 1997
2 Philip’s Astronomy Incyclopedia, edited by: Patrick Moore
3 Dictionary of Geophysics, Astrophysics and Astronomy, edited by: Richard A. Matzner, CRC Press, 2001
4 Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Technology,



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