Islamic Azad University
Science & Research Branch of Hormozgan
Thesis of Teaching English: M.A
The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Reading Comprehension: A Case study of Junior Students of Bandar Abbas Islamic Azad University
Seyyed Ayatollah Razmjoo Ph.D.
Farzin Fahimniya Ph.D.
Maryam Mohammadian Haghighi
First and foremost, I would like to express my special thanks to my dear professors, Dr. Razmjoo and Dr. Fahimniya, who support me while carrying out this study. I also offer thanks to Mr. Soleymani who let me use his classes for administering the tests. Next, I owe my deepest gratitude toward my dear spouse, Mr. Kamran Ameri, for his advice, encouragement, and continuous support. Then, I am thankful to my very kind parents whose encouragements have always given me strength. Furthermore, I would like to thank my sister Mehri, and her husband Dr. Ismaeil Fazel for their support. Last but not least, I appreciate my nice friends, especially Neda Raeisi, who helped me in this study.
My dear spouse
Table of Contents
PageContents 1AbstractChapter One: Introduction31.1 Introduction31.2 Background71.3 Statement of the problem 81.4 Significance of the study81.5 Objective of the study91.6 Research questions and hypotheses91.7 Limitations and delimitations of the study91.8 Definitions of key terms9 1.8.1 Emotion91.8.2 Intelligence9 1.8.3 Emotional Intelligence111.8.4 Emotional quotient111.8.5 Reading11 1.8.6 Reading ComprehensionChapter Two: Review of the Related Literature
142.1 Introduction142.2 Emotional Intelligence14 2.2.1 A Brief History of Emotional Intelligence 242.3 Models of Emotional Intelligence242.3.1 Ability Model252.3.2 Mixed Model262.3. 3 Trait Model272.4 Basic Criteria282.5 Theoretical Considerations28 2.5.1 Emotion292.5.2 Intelligence 342.5.3 Definitions of the 5 main categories of EI and their 15 sub-categories based on Bar-on’s classification (19963220.127.116.11 Intra-Personal 34 18.104.22.168.a Self-regard 322.214.171.124.b Emotional self awareness 3126.96.36.199.c Assertiveness 3188.8.131.52.d Independence 3184.108.40.206.e Self-actualization 35 220.127.116.11 Inter-Personal 318.104.22.168.a Empathy322.214.171.124.b Social responsibility 3126.96.36.199.c Inter-Personal relationship 3188.8.131.52 Stress-management 36
184.108.40.206.a Stress Tolerance3220.127.116.11.b Impulse control 318.104.22.168 Adaptability 322.214.171.124.a Reality Testing 3126.96.36.199.b Flexibility 3188.8.131.52.c Problem solving 3184.108.40.206 General mood 3220.127.116.11.a Optimism 318.104.22.168.b Happiness 372.6 Assessment Tools of Emotional Intelligence 402.7 Reading comprehension 402.7.1 A Brief History of Reading Comprehension 452.8 Theories behind Reading Comprehension 452.8.1 Schema Theory 462.8.2 Mental Model Theory 462.8.3 Proposition Theory 472.9 Strategies of improving reading comprehension based on the mentioned theories 482.10 Purposes of Reading Comprehension Strategies 482.11 What is Comprehension? 502.12 Studies carried out on the relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension Chapter Three: Methodology533.1 Introduction 533.2 Design 533.3 Participants 543.4 Instruments 54 3.4.1 Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory 553.4.2 Reading Comprehension Test 563.5 Data collection procedure 563.6 Data analysis
Chapter 4: Results and Discussion
594.1 Introduction 594.2 Descriptive Statistics 59 4.2.1 Descriptive statistics for the scores of emotional intelligence test 60 4.2.2 Descriptive statistics for the scores of reading comprehension test 614.3 Inferential Statistics 614.3.1 Is there any relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension? 704.4 Discussion Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusion, Implication & Suggestion735.1 Introduction 735.2 Summary of the study 745.3 Conclusion 765.4 Pedagogical Implications 775.5 Suggestions for further research References Appendices:96Appendix I 101Appendix II 107Appendix III 116Appendix IV 121Abstract in Persian
Lists of Tables
PageTables55Table 3.1. Reliability of the EI questionnaire 60Table 4.1. Descriptive statistics for the scores of emotional intelligence test 60Table 4.2. Descriptive statistics for the scores of reading comprehension test 61Table 4.3. correlation between EI and reading comprehension (RC) tests in general 62Tables 4.4. The correlation between all the questions of EI, one by one, with the total scores of RC 62Table 4.5. Correlation between 1st main category of EI and its sub categories and reading comprehension 62Table 4.6. Correlation between 2nd main category of EI and its sub categories and reading comprehension 63Table 4.7. Correlation between 3rd main category of EI and its sub categories and reading comprehension 63Table 4.8. Correlation between 4th main category of EI and its sub categories and reading comprehension 63Table 4.9. Correlation between 5th main category of EI and its sub categories and reading comprehension
Lists of Graphs
PageGraphs65Graph 4.1. It shows the weak relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension 66Graph (4.2 &3). They show a big difference between the EI and RC `s mean scores 68Graphs 4.4. The frequency graphs of the participants` answers to the 90 items of EI test
List of Abbreviations
EI Emotional intelligence
EQ Emotional Quotient
EQ-I Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Quotient Inventory
IQ Intelligence Quotient
RC Reading Comprehension
The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Reading Comprehension: A Case Study of Junior Students of Bandar Abbas Islamic Azad University
The aim of the present research was to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension of junior students of Bandar Abbas Islamic Azad University majoring in English. 60 students took part in this research and it is worth mentioning that gender had no role in this study. The participants were asked to answer two different tests: first, a short form of Bar-on`s emotional intelligence test consists of 90 questions and second, a TOEFL reading comprehension test including 4 passages and 30 questions. Comparing the mean scores of the two tests indicated a weak relationship between these two variables. As the obtained results depicted emotional intelligence had significant correlation with the participants’ reading comprehension abilities (r=0.29) but, this relation was not to the extent that is expected to be.
Key terms: emotion, intelligence, emotional intelligence, emotional quotient, reading, and reading comprehension.
This chapter presents a brief background to the study of Emotional Intelligence and Reading Comprehension. Then it will be followed by the significance and objective of the study, research question and hypothesis, limitations and delimitations of the study and finally, the definitions of key terms.
A comprehensive initial theory of emotional intelligence (EI) that could be measured appeared 20 years ago in the scientific literature (Mayer, Salovey, & DiPaolo, 1990; Salovey & Mayer, 1990). Thus, the term emotional intelligence was first introduced by Salovey and Mayer (1990) in the early 1990s and was made popular by Daniel Goleman with the 1995 publication of his book, Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. But, the earliest roots of emotional intelligence can be found in Charles Darwin’s work on the importance of emotional expression for survival and, second, adaptation (Bar-On, R., 2006). In 1872, Charles Darwin published the first known work on the importance of emotional expression for survival and adaptation, a component of emotional-social intelligence (Bar-On, 2005). Then, educators and policy makers have become increasingly aware of the significance of providing students with educational opportunities that enhance their emotional development (Graczyk, Weissberg, & Payton, 2000). In the field of psychology the roots of emotional intelligence can be traced back to the beginnings of the intelligence testing movement when, in 1920, E. L. Thorndike was the first to identify the aspect of emotional intelligence as social intelligence (Goleman, 2001, p. 16). According to Thorndike (1920), the concept of social intelligence refers to the “ability to understand and manage men, women, boys, and girls and to act wisely in human relations” (p. 228). E.L. Thorndike used the term social intelligence to describe the skill of understanding and managing other people. Goleman (2001) says that Howard Gardner revitalized the concept of emotional intelligence with his model of multiple intelligences. In 1983, Howard Gardner’s Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences introduced the idea of multiple intelligences which included both interpersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people) and intrapersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one’s feelings, fears and motivations). In Gardner’s point of view, traditional types of intelligence, such as IQ, fail to fully explain cognitive ability (Smith, M.K., 2002). Similarly, in 1940 David Wechsler described the influence of non-intellective factors on intelligent behavior, and further argued that his models of intelligence would not be completed until he could adequately describe these factors (Bar-On, R., 2006). However, in 1988, Reuven Bar-On is reported as the first to assess emotional intelligence, it is reported that Bar-On used the term emotional intelligence (EQ) in his doctoral dissertation long before it gained popularity as a name for emotional intelligence and long before Salovey and Mayer published their first model of intelligence (Goleman, 2001). Salovey and Mayer (1990) describe emotional intelligence as “the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions” (p. 189). As they describe emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive emotion, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought; to understand emotions and emotional knowledge; to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth. They also believe that there are four parts to emotional intelligence, which include (a) perceiving emotions, (b) using emotions to assist thought, (c) understanding emotions, and (d) managing emotions. In order for a person to be emotionally intelligent, they should be skilled in all four of these areas (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). However, in comparison, Goleman (1995) posits that emotional intelligence consists of five components: (a) knowing our emotions (self-awareness), (b) managing them, (c) motivating ourselves, (d) recognizing emotion in others (empathy), and (e) handling relationships.
Here, is a brief history of Emotional Intelligence by Kendra Cherry as cited in (psychology.about.com):
• 1930s – Edward Thorndike describes the concept of “social intelligence” as the ability to get along with other people.
• 1940s – David Wechsler suggests that affective components of intelligence may be essential to success in life.
• 1950s – Humanistic psychologists such as Abraham Maslow describe how people can build emotional strength.
• 1975 – Howard Gardner publishes The Shattered Mind, which introduces the concept of multiple intelligences.
• 1985 – Wayne Payne introduces the term emotional intelligence in his doctoral dissertation entitled “A study of emotion: developing emotional intelligence; self-integration; relating to fear, pain and desire (theory, structure of reality, problem-solving, contraction/expansion, and tuning in/coming out/letting go).”
• 1987 – In an article published in Mensa Magazine, Keith Beasley uses the term “emotional quotient.” It has been suggested that this is the first published use of the term, although Reuven Bar-On claims to have used the term in an unpublished version of his graduate thesis.
• 1990 – Psychologists Peter Salovey and John Mayer publish their landmark article, “Emotional Intelligence,” in the journal Imagination, Cognition, and Personality.
• 1995 – The concept of emotional intelligence is popularized after publication of psychologist and New York Times science writer Daniel Goleman’s book Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ.
To comprehend the ideas in the material is the main goal of reading. Thus, without comprehension, reading would be empty and meaningless. Reading comprehension is very crucial to the success of individuals during their education and beyond. To be successful in education, in work and even in hobbies, people must be able to understand the text that is ever present in the environment. Theories of text comprehension contend that as readers process text, they form a mental representation of the text (van den Broek, Young, Tzeng, & Linderholm, 1998; Graesser, Singer & Trabasso, 1994). This mental representation includes information relaing to the people, settings, actions and events either described explicitly or implied by the text (Garnham, 1996). When we are reading a text, we are unable to compute all the information presented to us, mainly because of processing limitations. We therefore construct a model of the situation, what can be referred to as a state of the world (Garnham & Oakhill, 1994), based on some elements presented to us and based on information stored in our long-term memory.
As Vygotsky (1978) suggests, reading is a mode of communication, and it is a social mediated language-learning activity. As a result, reading comprehension involves emotional processing and is essential to life success.
Souvignier & Moklesgerami (2006) defined Reading comprehension as one`s ability to read and remember, reproduce, learn from, and find deeper meaning in text for later use.
In the process of reading comprehension, readers use previous knowledge to handle the text and create new knowledge. The more knowledge a person brings to his or her reading, the more he or she will understand the text (Brandao & Oakhill, 2005; Guterman, 2003). Others say that good reading comprehension requires the reader to be active, and to be able to evaluate the text, preview the text, make predictions, make decisions during reading, review for deeper meaning, find inconsistencies, and evaluate his or her own understanding (Houtveen & van de Grift, 2006; Lau, 2006; Lau & Chan, 2003).
1.3 Statement of the problem
As Gardner (2006) states, in order to understand the complexity of language learning process, attention should be attached to internal mechanisms and social interpersonal interaction involved in this process. Therefore, emotional intelligence can be a great help since, as Coleman (2001) says, it not only serves as an international mechanism, but also interlocks with the external environment. Although variety factors are involved in comprehending a text, it seems that intelligence is an integral part of it. .But, what matter is that we most believe good comprehension of a text is mainly relates to the one`s previous knowledge and experiences not his/her intelligence. The issue is that whether intelligence is an abstract and passive factor in comprehending of a text or really a vital one. Therefore in this study, the relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension is supposed to be investigated to clarify the underlying intelligence areas related to reading comprehension.
1.4 Significance of the study
The result of this study will be useful for both teachers and learners. In other words, if the obtained results declare that there is a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension, the teachers and learners can deal with all points and matters that are crucial to improve their intelligence and comprehension. If not, because reading comprehension is a complex process in itself and we should not forget about the skills on which it depends, it will be concluded that having good comprehension is only as the result of one`s previous knowledge, experience and his/her familiarity with related strategies not having high intelligence. Therefore, the present research will consider this relation in order to help students to improve their comprehension of the text by being aware of the importance and power of their intelligence.
1.5 Objective of the study
Emotional intelligence is thought to be one of the factors affecting reading
comprehension. The objective of this research is to find whether there is any relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension or not.
1.6 Research questions and hypotheses
1) Is there any relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension?
H0 1: There is no